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ADDRESS 

TO THE 

ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 

DELIVERED AT THE ANNIVERSARY, 29th MAY, 1846. 

ny 

REAR-ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES MALCOLM, 

PRESIDENT. 

1 HREE years have now passed since the Ethnological 
Society was founded, within which period it is hoped our 
progress, if not rapid, has been of sound growth. The 
gigantic efforts of modern commerce, and the restless spirit 
of adventure it has created, when viewed in connexion with 
the history of the uncivilized tribes of mankind, are circum- 
stances which, while they demonstrate the importance of a 
Society whose labours are specially devoted to its elucidation, 
are yet attended with much perplexity and difficulty. " In 
science as in morals," says Sir John Herschel, " men see 
clearly how much of the waste of ages has been owing to 
a want of intercommunication and co-operation. How many 
a great truth may have dawned and died of old in the 
student's solitary cell, that the world has had since to dis- 
cover anew, instead of receiving it as a bequest, which might, 
ere now, have borne the mighty interest of some grander 
truth than itself, as yet to be revealed. It is a marking fea- 
ture of the times, that the principle of association is every- 
where spreading, and its value emphatically admitted, not as 
superseding the moral or intellectual efforts of individuals, or 
claiming the community of genius or of usefulness, but for 
combining powers, comparing progress, and securing results. 
In fact, Science has felt that she must be a corporation, in 
order that no part of her may be mortal, and for the pre- 
serving of all her charters and records." 

The value of a society devoted to inquire into the distin- 
guishing characteristics, physical and moral, of the varieties 
of mankind which inhabit, or have inhabited the earth, and 

b 2 



70 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

to ascertain the causes of such characteristics, may be mea- 
sured by these enlightened views. We must all have felt 
that the original communications made to this Society, and 
read at its ordinary meetings, have been in the highest degree 
interesting, and even copious, not only in extending our 
knowledge directly, but as having given rise to discussion, 
and interchanges of idea and information between the mem- 
bers, of which it is perfectly impossible to appreciate suffi- 
ciently the influence and value. Ideas thus communicated, 
fructify in a wonderful manner on subsequent reflection, and 
become, in innumerable cases, the germs of theories, and the 
connecting links between distant regions of thought, which 
might have otherwise continued indefinitely associated. 

The communications made to the Society consist of Me- 
moirs on the Ancient Peruvians, by Dr. De Tschudi; the 
Nations of Senegambia, by Mr. Tonnere ; the Mongols, by 
Mr. St. John; the Yamud and Goklan Tribes of Turko- 
mania, by the Baron de Bode ; the Beluchis of Sindh, and 
the Lower Valley of the Indus and Cutch, by Captain 
Postans; the Maldivians, by Captains Young and Christo- 
pher; the Esquimaux, by Dr. King ; the Natives of Guayana, 
by Sir Robert Schomburgk; the Natives of Puget Sound, 
the Straits of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Georgia, by 
Mr. Stoddard; the Language of the Oregon Territory, and 
the Ethnography of Russian America, by Dr. Latham ; the 
Nations of Africa, by Mr. Macqueen; the Mouth, by Mr. 
Nasmyth ; the Pelvis, by the Baron de Ritgen ; the Progress 
of Philology and the Ancient Inhabitants of the Canary 
Islands, by Dr. Hodgkin; the Nilagiris, by Dr. Schmid; 
the Bushmen, by Mr. Ruxton; the Australians, by Mr. 
Eyre; the Natives of Old Calabar, by Mr. Daniell; the 
Natives of Syria, by Dr. Thompson ; Historical Philology in 
relation to Ethnography, by Dr. Lorenz Dieffenbach; and 
the Indian Tribes of the North-west Coast of America, by 
Dr. Scouler. 

To this store of knowledge we hope to add further contri- 
butions every fortnight, as expressed in the Report of the 
Council, for " the Ethnologist," to use the words of the 
eminent philosopher just quoted, " must be wedded to his 



Anniversary Address. 71 

subject if he would see the children, and the children's 
children of his intellect flourishing in honour around him." 

If we had reason to deplore at the first Anniversary, that 
no record was kept of the interesting specimens of mankind 
who visit our shores, we have now, in the infancy of our 
growth, in the third year only of our existence, to rejoice 
at the ample means at our command for preserving their 
peculiar characteristics. As a Sculptor we have a volunteer 
in Mr. Archer, a member of this Society, and as Portrait 
Painters, Mr. Hartnell and Mr. Peake, artists of known ability. 
These gentlemen have already presented to us busts typifying 
the Malayan, and portraits characterizing the Papuan and 
Australian varieties of mankind, and they only wait for 
material to render us still further service. If we were to put 
a value upon the donations to this Society, the memoranda 
which these gentlemen have placed in our hands would take 
the first position, for they are works of general reference of 
the most truthful and lasting character. 

In the Ethnological Society of France much work has been 
done. M. Lajard's researches into the history of the Chal- 
deans, lead him to believe that they are not a Semitic people. 
He founds his opinion upon certain Chaldean institutions 
unknown to the Semites, and upon the Chaldean names, 
which have an evident relation to the Sanskrit. M. Bore 
considers he has found the descendants of the Chaldeans 
on the mountains to the south of Armenia, at the same 
place where Xenophon and Strabo describe them as existing. 
The principal argument of M. Bore is drawn from the lan- 
guage of these mountaineers. 

M. Eugene de Froberville has investigated the manners, 
habits, and customs of the two races of Madagascar, the 
Betsimsaraks and the Hovas. The latter he has no doubt are 
of Malay origin, and according to tradition the Malays made 
the conquest of Madagascar. They possess a high intellectual 
character, and display great mechanical ingenuity ; they are 
in consequence very powerful. The black race of Mada- 
gascar is probably the original stock. 

M. Noel Desvergers is of opinion that the Arab population 
in Sicily has survived the conquest of the Normans. 



72 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

Dr. Edwards, contrary to the opinion of M. D'Abbadie, 
considers that the Abyssinians present several distinct types. 

M. Dumoutier considers the inhabitants of Noukahiva, 
one of the Marquesas Islands, to present a type of a nation 
in its infancy. They are distinguished for their amiable dis- 
position and unbounded hospitality, still they are cannibals. 
According to their language they belong to the race which 
peoples the islands of the Pacific from the Sandwich Islands 
to New Zealand. 

M. Briere has shown, by a careful study of the sacred 
languages of the ancient priests of Egypt, that these officials 
had a language of their own, which was in use a long time 
after the signification of the words of which it was composed 
had fallen into oblivion. 

M. Dulau has come to the conclusion that the Malay, in 
the etymological constitution of his words, as well as in the 
grammatical forms, has a striking similarity to the people of 
Eastern Asia, whilst from his alphabet and other characte- 
ristic signs, it is evident that he has engrafted on his own 
various idioms of the people of India. 

M. de Castelnau has drawn a comparison between the 
savage, the civilized, the slave, and the freeman. M. de 
Castelnau believes in the existence of at least two races in 
America ; the one appeared to be that of the conquered, the 
other that of the conquerors. The first seemed undoubtedly 
of Asiatic origin, and came from the west, while the other 
came from the east, and in all probability of Asiatic descent 
also. He looked upon the Esquimaux as descendants from 
the Norwegians and the Danes. 

M. Edward Biot has proved that the custom of tatooing 
goes as far back as the thirteenth and even twentieth century 
before our era, the mode by incision and infiltration of black 
matter being of a more ancient date than that by burning. 

M. Vivien, after a rapid examination of the causes which 
operated in retarding the science of Ethnology, explained 
what he considered the principal object of its study, and 
pointed out its importance relative to history. He expressed 
his opinion that the comparison of languages formed an im- 
portant element in the classification of nations, but by no 



Anniversary Address. 73 

means held the first place. A thousand circumstances may 
change and modify a language until it renders it nearly iden- 
tical with another language, whereas the physical character is 
of the most lasting nature. 

M. Berthelot considers that the inhabitants of the Canary 
Islands, far from having being exterminated, formed intimate 
ties with their conquerors, which is proved by the authentic 
contracts of marriages which still exist in MS. The type of 
the Guanches was perfectly preserved amongst the shepherds 
and the peasants, especially in the southern part of Teneriffe, 
in Guimar, Arona, Arrico, Charna, and Guia. The descend- 
ants of the victors and of the vanquished, related by mar- 
riage, have in their appearance even more of the Guanche 
than of the Spaniard. Many customs, formerly peculiar to 
the aborigines, are still in use amongst them. 

M. Benet considers the industrious Kashmirians to be the 
descendants of an European race, probably the soldiery left 
in the Punjaub by Alexander the Great; they scarcely number 
2000. They marry entirely among themselves, and speak 
the Persian language. The origin and customs of the Sikhs, 
their military organization and civil institutions, formed the 
subject of another paper from M. Benet to the Society. He 
exhibited a rich collection of small ivory statues, painted and 
gilded with care, as well as several paintings representing the 
different personages of the Court of Lahore; they were 
remarkable for their detail and high finish. 

M. Lefebvre asserts, that in Abyssinia there are two Mulatto 
races, the Galla and the Guindjar, and two black races, the 
Teounies and the Choho. 

M. Imbert des Mottelettes has been for some time occu- 
pied in collecting the ethnological information spread through 
the works of Homer, Xenophon, and Arrian, with the view 
of forming an ethnological description of the ancient world. 

M. Eusebe de Salles, in a paper entitled " The Features 
of Ethnographical Philology," contends for the unity of 
origin in opposition to the opinion of Desmoulin and other 
authors. 

M. Pavie has studied the Parsis in Bombay, where they 
number 20,000. At the time of the conquest of Persia by 



74 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

the Mahomedan califs, the followers of Zoroaster took 
refuge in great number in Korasan. They remained there for 
about a century, until Islamism extended itself to these 
mountains, when the Parsis crossed the desert and went to 
Ormus, where they embarked for India. At first they set- 
tled in Guzarat, near Diu, and finally at Sanjan, where they 
were so prosperous as to be able to send colonies abroad, 
and one of them reached Bombay. The Parsis are, like the 
Jews, united among themselves, and so attached to their 
religion as to suffer martyrdom for it. Their wealth places 
them at the head of all financial matters. Their physical 
type is altogether different from that of the Hindu. The sun 
is the first object of their worship, then the moon, the stars, 
the sea, &c. They worship also the cow and the dog. They 
exclude from their temples paintings and sculptures. The 
social life of the Parsis is entirely confined to the interior of 
their own families. They take great care of the education of 
their children, and marry very young. The body of the 
Parsis after death is neither buried nor burnt, but abandoned 
to the birds of prey. 

M. D'Avezac, in examining how far ethnological data will 
assist in determining, a priori, the national instincts of a people, 
has arrived at the conclusion, from the influence of external 
agents, that the Greeks of Cyrene are of the Dorian family. 

M. D'Eichthal considers the father-land of the Foulahs, or 
Fellans, of the north-west coast of Africa, according to the 
study of their language and their traditions, to have been the 
Indian archipelago. Not far from our time they were a 
pastoral and nomadic people, wandering in the middle of the 
black population. It was only in the middle of the sixteenth 
century that the Foulahs showed themselves as conquerors, 
and made themselves masters of Senegambia, where they 
constituted the little states of Fouta-Toro, Fouta-Bondou, 
and Fouta-Diallon. At the beginning of this century the 
scheik Othman, with the surname of Danfodio, having rallied 
around him all the Foulahs of the centre founded the em- 
pire of Sakatou, which contains the whole of Haoussa, and 
even a part of Nyffe and of Yarriba. His son Bello, who 
succeeded him in 1816, according to Clapperton, Lander, and 



Anniversary Address. 75 

Oldfield, all eye-witnesses, had considerably extended this 
empire, so that in 1833 the state of Sakatou contained also 
the lower region of Kouarah, as far as the Tchadda. 

From information obtained by means of oral intercourse 
with a native, M. D'Avezac has obtained a pretty correct 
knowledge of the physical and moral character of the 
Yebou, a people living on the coast of Guinea, between 
the Dahome and the Benin. 

M. Lacger is of opinion that the population of Algeria 
does not exceed 2,000,000 of inhabitants, spread over a 
surface of 160,000 square kilometres. This country, at the 
time of the Roman dominion, was thickly inhabited. Its 
depopulation is attributed to the corrupt manners of the 
Musulman, and to the prevalence of epidemic and endemic 
diseases. M. Lacger divides the population into the follow- 
ing classes : 

1st. The Kabyles, who include a part of the Chouia, and 
especially the Mozabites, the model of the type which he 
thinks aboriginal. 

2ndly. The fair race, or Xanthous {race blonde), living 
amongst the Chouia, and which the author believes to be 
European. 

3dly. The Arabs, from whom the Moors differ only by 
their manner of living, and the Jews by their religion and 
their dress. 

4thly. The Turks, so few in number that they can hardly 
be perceived. 

5thly and finally, the Black race, autochthonic (autochtone) 
of the Sahara, and of which a great portion is reduced to 
slavery. 

According to M. Lelut, the growth of man extends to the 
thirtieth year. The ordinary height of the lower class in 
France is, at the age of 30, of 1,657 millimetres, (5 feet, 
1 inch, 3 lines). This height is a little superior in the 
departments of the East, as it is in Belgium ; the mean 
height is there 1,681 millimetres. M. Lelut founds his opinion 
upon the measurement of 3,000 individuals belonging to a 
convicts' dep6t, and from 1,000 other individuals inhabit- 
ing the little town of Gy, in Franche-Comte. Generally 



76 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

speaking, the middle classes are taller than the lower, and the 
inhabitants of the towns than those of the country. The 
high stature of the inhabitants of the departments of the 
East, as of the Belgians, induces him to believe that they 
are descended from the Kimrian Gauls, and mentions, in sup- 
port of this opinion, that at the time of Augustus, the Sequana 
was included in the Belgian provinces. 

M. Vivien, in a paper on "The Different Races of Man- 
kind, viewed with regard to the Development of their Reli- 
gious Ideas," considers that a religious belief exists generally, 
and that there is a tendency to an external manifestation or 
worship modified according to the intellectual character and 
advancement of civilization peculiar to each race. In the 
lowest degree of civilization men have professed naturalism, 
from gross fetichism to Sabeism, or the worshipping of fire. 
Then pantheism, to which the author believes man is led by 
naturalism, and which embraces the lingam worship ; Sivaism 
among others, and the dualism of the ancient religions of the 
East. As to monotheism, it is of a more recent epoch. The 
origin of the primordial nature of the successive modifica- 
tions, and of the mutual relations of the different religions 
of Hindustan, of Iran, of Egypt, and of Greece, formed a 
part of M. Vivien's subject. 

Further researches of M. Vivien tend to prove that the 
Asiatic peninsula was originally inhabited only by two dis- 
tinct races; the one of fair complexion, belonging to the 
numerous group which has been designated under the name 
of Indo-Germanic population, and the other belonging to 
the Aramean population. The first generally occupied the 
northern and western zone of Asia Minor ; the second, the 
southern zone, and the eastern part of it, beginning from 
the Halys. On several spots of contact, especially Lydia, 
Caria, Lycia, the two races mixed together with each other 
in such a manner as to render the distinction difficult. 
Everywhere else they have remained perfectly distinct in their 
features as well as their language. 

In " An Ethnological Sketch of the Nations of the East 
Indies on the left of the Ganges" Captain Troyer notices some 
creeds admitted to have taken their origin from the cosmo- 



Anniversary Address. 77 

gony of the Hindus, and then passes to the question of the 
place which ought to be assigned to them in the general 
classification of the human race — whether we consider their 
physical form or their intellectual and moral character. He 
thinks that he can come to the conclusion that the Hindus 
belong in every respect to the Caucasian race, where Blumen- 
bach placed them, and that they must be associated to the 
nations which in Asia and in some parts of Africa are distin- 
guished under the general name of Iranians or Arians, and in 
Europe to the Greeks, to the Latins, and to the Teutonic 
and Slavonian nations, the ancient connexion of which has 
been established by comparative philology. 

Passing in review the languages of this extensive country, 
in the first place, Captain Troyer speaks of those which are 
made use of by the inhabitants of the western coast of the 
Indus, in a portion of the ancient Ariana. The origin and the 
language of the Afghan and of the Beluchi, as well as the 
Indo-Scythic dominion upon the Indus, are the objects of his 
investigations. On the eastern coast of this river he men- 
tions the Saks, under different names, and the Parthians. He 
calls attention to the numismatic references collected in these 
latter times, which, beginning from the third century before 
our era, extend themselves over more than twenty-one suc- 
cessive centuries : to the language of the Jats — that of the 
Kattis — and four principal dialects, spoken to the east of 
the Indus, and in the high valleys of the Punjaub; and 
to the dialects properly called Sanskrit, especially the Pra- 
krit — and the Maghadhi — or Pali. He shows the exten- 
sion of the languages and of the Indian institutions in the 
East and in Polynesia. He points out the importance of 
comparative philology, as a new science, applied to the study 
of the Sanskrit. After having called the attention to the 
division of languages in systems and families, and having sig- 
nalized the Arian and Semitic systems, the author charac- 
terizes in particular the Sanskrit tongue, and states that three 
principal periods exist in its development. A rapid view of 
the division of all languages in dialects, leads him next to 
show how the ancient Sanskrit has become a dead language, 
leaving after itself nothing but idioms, the principal of which 



78 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

the author intends to enumerate at the first opportunity, 
especially those spoken in our times. 

He divides India philologically into three departments, 
which he names the northern, central, and southern, and 
enumerates the dialects made use of in each of these divisions. 
Among sixteen principal idioms which he distinguishes, twelve 
are derived from the Sanskrit, and four only from a foreign 
source — probably Finnish. These last are principally spoken 
in the Deccan or in the south of the Indian peninsula. He 
mentions the traditions relating to the ancient conquerors and 
civilizers of the Deccan, especially to Parasu-Rama, to Agas- 
tya, to Ramachandra, and to the Pandyans. He endeavours 
to give a general idea of the monuments of architecture and 
sculpture which are found in the Deccan. He reverts to the 
observations made before, — viz., that the north of India has 
preserved certain traditions relating to the south of this 
country, where these same traditions appear to be less known. 
Captain Troyer enumerates several, and entirely different from 
the Hindus, and mentions that the Hindus themselves say 
they came from a northern country, — traditions which har- 
monize with historical probabilities. He enters into the 
description of the country, and shows from what part these 
Indo-Arians must have penetrated into the peninsula. He 
thinks he is able to point out the Hindu- Kush as the most 
probable spot of the passage of this immigration, and the 
Punjaub as the first station of these new comers ; it is from 
thence that they proceeded towards the East, to settle in that 
part which is properly called India. After treating of the 
different religions professed by these nations, he gives an idea 
of that of the uncivilized aborigines of India ; then he passes 
to the religion of the ancient Iranians and Indo-Arians, for- 
merly united. He marks out some principal points of com- 
parison between the creeds of these great races, which, he 
thinks, were divided into sects before they separated to settle 
in different regions, where their institutions, political as well 
as religious, developed themselves under peculiar forms. 
Having to treat of the religion of the Hindus, properly 
called so, M. Troyer makes three great divisions of the reli- 
gious sects and various schools. The first division he calls 



Anniversary Address. 79 

the Vedic Hinduism (l'Hindouisme Vedique). From the 
antiquity of the name and of the religion of Buddha, he 
considers himself entitled to come to the conclusion that there 
was a plurality of Buddhas, amongst which Sakya-Muni, the 
Indian Buddha, holds a prominent place. After having 
enumerated the traditional and historical proofs of Buddhism 
in India, he passes to the Brahmanism, which the supremacy 
of the Brahmanic sect imposed as a dogma and peremptory 
condition of discipline. He calls to mind the alternate pre- 
eminence of both religions, and determines approximatively 
the time of the expulsion of the Buddhists. In pointing 
out the provinces which remained Buddhist, he makes the 
remark, that the worship of the Mountains (des Montagnes) 
has continued to be common to all the Hindus. M. Dumou- 
tier affirms that it is impossible to settle general characters by 
means of which a typical difference between the Blacks of 
Africa and those of Oceania may be fixed ; though, in both 
races there are varieties strongly marked enough. To the 
five races established by Blumenbach, M.d'Omalius d'Halloy 
adds, as a distinct appendix, the hybrids of all denominations 
resulting from their crossing. M. des Mottelettes is, however, 
of opinion that the different crossings of the five races 
established by Blumenbach have given origin to hybrids very 
different, and that these elements are too heterogeneous to 
form together a single class. 

The American Ethnological Society has been engaged with 
the following subjects : — 

The inscribed stone known as the Dighton Rock, in the 
town of Assouet, Massachusets, comprising a full analysis of 
the characters found on it, with their explanation, furnished 
by an Indian of the Chippewa tribe; the Grave Creek 
Mound in the Ohio valley and the inscribed tablet found 
therein ; and some curious evidences of an era of ancient semi- 
civilization in the West noticed in the progress of settlements 
in the Mississippi valley and the Lakes, by Henry R. School- 
craft. 

Notice of the Uniapa Islands, a small group near New 
Guinea, and of the habits, language, &c, of that portion of 



80 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

the black race by which they are inhabited, from materials 
derived from a native ; and an account of the Serreculies or 
Serrawallies, with hints respecting other tribes of the Foulah 
nation, by Theodore Dwight. 

The ruins of a temple discovered on the lower range of 
Mount Lebanon, near Beyroot, with remarks on the frag- 
ments of an inscription tending to show that it was dedicated 
to Jupiter, who was there worshipped under a Phosnician 
name, by Rev. Eli Smith. 

The Progress of Ethnology, and the historical evidence 
adduced by the Welsh in favour of the discovery of America 
by Madoc ap Owen Gwinedd in the twelfth century, by 
John R. Bartlett. 

Account of an ancient structure at Bless in the southern 
part of the regency of Tunis, Africa ; and a Visit to the Lybio- 
Phoenician Monument at Dugga in the Pashalic of Tunis, 
by Frederic Catherwood. 

A letter from Mr. J. Hamilton Couper of Georgia, giving 
an account of an aged Foulah slave living in that State, toge- 
ther with his African Reminiscences; and an Arabic letter 
from Abu Nasir of Nazareth, Syria, respecting schools esta- 
blished by him. 

An account of some ancient remains in Tennessee, with 
traces of Phallic worship among a people once occupying that 
section of country, by Gerard Troost, M.D. 

The Aborigines of the Island of Hayti or St. Domingo, 
identifying them with the Arrowacks of South America, by 
T. A. Van Heuvel. 

The recent discoveries of Himyaritic Inscriptions, and the 
attempts made to decipher them, by William M. Turner. 

The Grave Creek Mound and Inscription, communicated 
by the Rev. H. G. Comingo to Dr. Robinson. 

The existing remains of the Punic or Carthaginian Lan- 
guage by George Folsom. 

The Phallic Worship, its extent with the old world and 
probable prevalence in America, by the Rev. Francis L. 
Hawks. 

The Ethnography, Languages, &c, of Northern Africa, 
the Sahara, and Soudan, by William B. Hodgson. 



Anniversary Address. 81 

The Semi-civilized Nations of Mexico, Yucatan, and 
Central America, by Albert Gallatin. 

Sketches of the Antiquities of the West, by N. Crook- 
shank. 

PROGRESS OF PHILOLOGY. 

In respect to the amount of investigation that has been 
applied to ethnological philology it may safely be stated that, 
notwithstanding the importance of the subject, the amount of 
raw material in the way of glossaries and grammatical treatises 
has not been proportionate to the extent of geographical area 
traversed ; and also, that the amount of generalization has not 
kept pace with the accumulation of fresh data. Whole dis- 
tricts, of the utmost philological importance, are represented 
by only a few scanty vocabularies. With New Guinea in the 
Old, and with Texas in the New World, this is pre-eminently 
the case. All additions to our knowledge concerning these 
important tracts would be important documents. 

For California, the work of Mofrat furnishes us with the 
Pater Noster in several dialects. 

For Demerara, the unpublished vocabularies of Sir Robert 
Schomburgk are still expected with curiosity proportionate 
to their value. 

For Asia, the vocabularies of Leach and others help to 
enable us to draw the line, so necessary to be clearly chalked 
out, between the Indo-European tongues of Northern India 
and Persia, on the one side, and the tongues akin to either 
the Turkish, or Thibetian, on the other. 

For Africa, the most valuable of our data are a MS. voca- 
bulary, by Mr. Leigh, of the Sowaiel or Sohili language, 
and Dr. Beke's paper on the languages of Abyssinia. To 
these may be added the Galla Grammar and Vocabulary of 
Tutshek. 

In France and America, respectively, Ethnographical 
Transactions have, within the last year, been published. The 
general rule for all Ethnological contributions, viz., that new 
data, even in the roughest form, are of far more value than 
the most plausible systems, holds good with both these works. 
The really valuable parts of the French work are its con- 



82 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

tributions to African Philology, in the shape of a Yebou 
grammar, by d'Avezac, and its vocabularies of the Sene- 
gambian languages, viz., Woloff, Sereres, Feloop, Bagnon, 
Gaboon, &c. 

The Philological part of the American volume is chiefly 
by Gallatin. He deals with the languages of Mexico and 
Central America. Some of his data are new, and all his rea- 
soning is sensible. The work, however, seems to have been 
written without a knowledge of what was to be found in so 
common a book as the Mithridates, — a fact that should be 
mentioned, in order to guard against the idea of the treatise 
being exhaustive. 

In noticing the generalizations in this department of Eth- 
nology, prominence must be given to the papers of Mr. New- 
man, on the Berber language. Dr. R. G. Latham's papers, 
read before the Ethnological sub-sections at Cambridge and 
Southampton, contain only the remits of his researches, and 
the proofs being as yet unpublished, they cannot, at present, 
be counted amongst the facts of Ethnography. 

In the minute Ethnography that determines, through the 
evidence of language, such problems as the amount of Anglo- 
Saxon, Dutch, or Danish blood in Great Britain, good work 
has been done by Messrs. Kemble and Garnett, in the Trans- 
actions of the Philological Society ; along with which the 
review of Dr. Bird should be read. Taken with Newman's 
remarks on the Berber, Dr. Bird's reasoning on the Coptic 
and Bisharee is full of probable suggestions. 

PROGRESS OF ETHNOLOGY. 

M. L. Vivien de St. Martin's History of Geographical 
Discovery will be consulted with advantage by those who 
want time for original inquiry. It will consist of forty-three 
volumes, arranged under four distinct heads or series ; viz., 
for what is called Anterior Asia (including the country be- 
tween the Hellespont and the Indus), 9 vols. ; for the rest of 
Asia, 10 vols.: for Africa, 10 vols. : for America and Oceania, 
14 vols. The first volume has just appeared. 

A Treatise on the Origin, Progress, and Symbolical Import 



Anniversary Address. 83 

Ages of the World, by John Dudley, M.A., contains informa- 
tion of some interest; as well as a work by James Legrew, 
entitled, " A few Remarks on the Sculptures of the Nations 
referred to in the Old Testament, deduced from an Examina- 
tion of some of their Idols." 

In the Paris Academy of Sciences, M. Jacquinot, the 
companion of Dumont d'Urville, in his last expedition, has 
disputed the opinion of Flourens, that the colour of the skin 
in man is in proportion to the heat of the climate in which 
he is born, and lives. 

The History of the Swedes, by Eric Gustave Geijer, has 
been translated into English by J. H. Turner, Esq., M. A. 

ASIA. 

The Russian Minister of Public Instruction has addressed 
a Report to the Emperor, on the results of M. Middendorf's 
scientific mission into Siberia. The learned Academician had 
explored the two provinces of Taimyrland and Utzkoi, the 
one extending between Piaszyma and Chatanga, as far as the 
Frozen Ocean, and the second touching on the south-eastern 
extremity of Asiatic Russia. After having visited "the Sehan- 
tar Islands, where no traveller had preceded it, the expedition 
pushed its way, through many perils, to the very frontiers of 
China. M. Middendorf is about to publish, at the cost of 
the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburgh, a detailed 
account of his journey. 

To M. Neumann, Professor of History at the University 
of Munich, has been awarded the prize of the Academy of 
Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, of Paris, for the subject pro- 
posed for competition in 1839, — "To examine into the 
origin, migrations, and succession of the Populations who 
dwelt to the north of the Black and Caspian Seas, from the 
3rd century to the close of the 11th : to determine, with the 
utmost attainable precision, the extent of country occupied 
by each of them at different periods ; to examine if they can 
be connected, in whole or in part, with any of the existing 
nations ; and to fix the chronological series of the various 
invasions of Europe made by them." 

The Punjaub ; being a Brief Account of the Country of 



84 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

the Sikhs, by Lieut.-Col. Steinbach, will be read at this 
moment with peculiar interest. Colonel Steinbach' s opportu- 
nities of making himself acquainted with this race of India 
were of an unusual character, and he has evidently not neg- 
lected to turn them to account. 

The History of Ceylon, from the earliest period to the 
present time, by William Knighton ; and the communications 
to the Asiatic Society " On the Festivals of the Hindus, by 
Professor Wilson," and " on the Cingalese, by the Rev. R. 
S. Hardy, of Negombo, in Ceylon," will most amply repay 
the trouble of reference. 

Captain T. J. Newbold considers the tombs near Chittoor, 
in North Arcot, attributed by the natives of India to dwarfs 
and fairies, to have a close resemblance to the cromlechs 
and other Druidical remains of England. The bones con- 
tained in them were those of ordinary stature, and gave a 
complete contradiction to the vulgar belief that these tombs 
were the homes of a pigmy race, who had in ancient times, 
resided in them. Captain Newbold compares these tombs to 
the Druidical remains of North Western Europe and the 
mounds of the vast Tartarian Steppes ; and, above all, to the 
mysterious tombs of Circassia, which are absolute facsimiles 
of those of India, including their circular aperture. He con- 
siders that these widely-separated vestiges of the same family 
of the human race form a strong link of the chain of argu- 
ment which, independently of Holy Writ, conducts the migra- 
tion of the human race from one central point throughout 
all the world ; and carries us back to the remote period when 
" the whole earth was of one family and one speech." 

AFRICA. 

General Duvivier has published, in part, his views in 
reference to the inscriptions in an unknown character, com- 
monly described as Phoenician letters, which exist on medals 
and stones found in great numbe/s in Africa, the coast of 
Spain, and the Mediterranean islands, whose reading has so 
long engaged the labours of the scholar and antiquarian. 
These stones, which hitherto presented nothing more than 
long unmeaning series of proper names, promise to become 



Anniversary Address. 85 

curious pages of the history, manners, and language of the 
ancient populations who once held the commercial sceptre of 
the world. 

R. Thomassy has rendered an account of Morocco and its 
caravans ; and the Oriental Album, or Historical, Pictorial, 
and Ethnographical Sketches, illustrating the human families 
in the valley of the Nile, by E. Prisse, is in progress of publi- 
cation, and promises to be a work of high merit. 

The Chevalier Bunsen's work entitled " Egypt's Place 
in the History of the World," is now before us, as well as a 
translation into English, by C. H. Cottrel. 

The Sahara of Algiers, or Researches in the Region South 
of the French Establishment in Algeria, founded on the docu- 
ments collected by Lieut.-Col. Daumas, and published by the 
authority of the Marshal Duke of Dalmatia, is an important 
addition to our knowledge of North African Ethnology. 

The Journal of an African Cruiser, by an officer of the 
U. S. navy, is rich in the Ethnology of the west coast of 
Africa, and Dr. Zams' most interesting work on the Portu- 
guese possessions in Southwestern Africa, has been translated 
from the German, with an introduction and annotations, by 
N. Evans Lloyd. 

AMERICA. 

Dr. Lund, the Danish naturalist, has discovered in the 
province of Minas Geraes, Brazil, human bones, similar to 
those of the existing aboriginal tribes, excepting that in many 
of the skulls, the incisor and molar teeth are exactly alike, a 
circumstance observed in some of the Egyptian mummies ; 
and in one of the numerous calcareous caverns at Lago a 
Santa a quantity of human bones, near those of different spe- 
cies of animals, some of which are now extinct. He con- 
cludes, from the latter fact, that it is erroneous to regard the 
South American as a variety of the Mongolian race, who are 
supposed to have peopled what is called the New World, by 
emigration. The geological constitution of the continent 
shows, he states, that it is anterior to what we call the old 
continent, and the Mongolian race is but a branch of the 
American races instead of being the primitive root. 

c 2 



86 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

Mr. Squier, of Cincinnati, has communicated to the 
Archaeological Institute his reasons for supposing that the 
mounds, or earth-works, of the valley of the Missisippi are 
not, in many cases, sepulchral, and that they are the work of 
a race long anterior to modern Indian tribes, and much more 
advanced in art and civilization, as appeared from the con- 
structive skill displayed in their mounds and military out- 
works, and the fashion of their implements and pottery. 

In the work of M. Duflot de Mofras, on the Oregon terri- 
tory and the Californias, the Indian tribes of that locality 
hold a prominent position. 

The work on the Indian tribes of North America, by 
Thomas L. McKenney and J. Hall, three vols, folio, is now 
completed. This magnificently illustrated publication contains 
120 carefully coloured portraits, faithful records of the 
aborigines of the soil now occupied by the Americans. 
While, as Ethnologists, we rejoice that the American Govern- 
ment have preserved these traces of the people who were the 
first occupiers of the lands of the United States, as English- 
men, we regret that no record has been kept of the interesting 
red men of Canada. 

AUSTRALASIA. 

Mr. Eyre and Mr. Earl, in their Journals of Expeditions 
of Discovery in Australia, have rendered a full and interesting 
account of the aborigines of the countries through which they 
passed. 

Several works have appeared on New Zealand, among 
which may be especially noticed those of Dr. Martin and Mr. 
Brown. 

POLYNESIA. 

In the Narrative of "The Expedition to Borneo of the 
Dido, with extracts from the Journal of James Brooke, Esq., 
of Sarawak, by Captain the Hon. H. Keppel, R. N.," is 
recorded much information of the Dyaks, the supposed 
aborigines of Borneo, and also of the Malay conquerors 
who inhabit the coasts of the Great Island. 

Dr. Meinicke, of Brentzlau, has rendered an account of 



Anniversary Address. 87 

the manners, habits, and customs of some of the Polynesians, 
in a work entitled, " The South Sea People and Christendom, 
an Ethnographic Dissertation." 

RESEARCH IN PROSPECT. 

General Briggs has commenced a series of papers, full of 
research, on the aboriginal races of India. It is a subject of 
vast extent, and of great ethnological interest, yet one to 
which General Briggs's researches whilst in India render him 
fully equal. 

Mr. Ruxton proposes to make a second attempt to cross 
South Africa, within the tropic, from west to east, if the Bri- 
tish Government will render him some assistance, to the want 
of which he attributed the failure of his first attempt. What 
Mr. Ruxton has already done, upon his own resources, is a 
proof of his zeal and enterprise, and offers the best prospect 
of success, if he be supported as he hopes, and which, as Eth- 
nologists, we shall rejoice to see realized — for he will have to 
traverse the country of the Damaras, a people altogether 
unknown. 

Mr. Daniell, of whom honourable mention has often been 
made in the Ethnological Society, has again sailed for Africa ; 
and the French have resolved to complete the observations 
made on the river Senegal : — it is intended to advance as far 
as the cataracts of Govino. 

Mr. James Richardson, bent on African exploration, 
after residing three months at Ghadarmes, in the Great 
Desert, has started for Soudan, and thence to Timbuctoo and 
other parts of the southern interior ; and M. Raffenel is about 
to depart for Senegal, under the auspices of the Minister of 
Marine, with the intention of traversing the whole of Western 
Africa, from west to east. 

M.Maizan, a young naval officer of France, engaged in an 
expedition for exploring the interior of Africa, who, it was 
believed, had been assassinated by his negro slave, a few days' 
journey south-west of Zanzibar, is detained prisoner by the 
Karras, on the frontier of the kingdom of the Quiloa. 

The attempt of Captain Becroft to open a commercial 
traffic with the natives of Central Africa ; the intentions of the 



88 Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm's 

French Government regarding the south-eastern coast of 
Africa, and the southern coast of Arabia; and the travels of 
the Rev. Mr. Brockman, in South Arabia, will tend to throw 
light upon the people of these several localities. 

Dr. Legaillon, who was with M. Dumont d'Urville, has 
gone to Madagascar. 

The Danish Government intend to occupy the Nicobar 
Islands. There is some prospect, therefore, of information 
from that neglected quarter. 

M. Hommaire de Hell is about to proceed on a scientific 
mission to the western and southern coasts of the Black Sea, 
Turkish and Persian Armenia, the northern and eastern pro- 
vinces of Persia, the shores of the Caspian, and the various 
Khanats of Turkestan. 

M. Adam Elie de Siebold, of Leyden, whose researches 
into the history of the Japanese are well known, has returned 
to Japan, under the auspices of his government, for the pro- 
secution of further research. 

Letters dated from Chuquisaca, the 2nd October, 1845, 
have been received from M. de Castelnau's expedition. The 
travellers have now been two years occupied in research, 
during which time they have made themselves acquainted 
with populations whose very names were previously unknown 
to the Ethnologist. 

Count Keyserling is about to proceed to Obdorsk, on the 
Obe, where he will have an opportunity of studying the 
Ostiaks and Samoyedes. 

The anxiety respecting Captain Sturt has been dispelled 
on the receipt of his dispatches, dated 18th of July. He had, 
at that time, reached the latitude of 28 deg., a degree beyond 
that reached by Captain Frome. I wish I could say as much 
for Leichard, who, it will be recollected, resolved to proceed 
from the Darling Downs to Port Essington. No certain in- 
formation has yet been received from him, beyond the point 
reached by Mr. Pemberton Hodgson.* 

It is much to be regretted that, as yet, no accurate account 



* Since the Anniversary Meeting, Leichard has returned, and is bent 
upon further exploration. 



Anniversary Address. 89 

has been given of the singular race who inhabit the Great 
Andaman. By some they are represented as a fierce race of 
cannibals. I visited that island in H.M.S. Suffolk, 74, in 
1799, and found the tribes in the neighbourhood of Port 
Cornwallis of a gentle character and pleasing features, small, 
but well-made, woolly-headed, existing in a state of nature, 
without the least covering, and upon roots and fish ; the wild 
hog, vermin excepted, being the only four-footed animal 
on the island. We took three boys away, in addition to 
George, Adm. Rainier's servant, who soon became good ser- 
vants, and learnt English easily. "Whence this race came, it 
is not easy to conjecture, and we have no knowledge of their 
language whereby to trace their origin. I have written both 
to Bombay and Bengal for information on this subject, which 
I hope soon to receive. 

The American Ethnological Society announces that seve- 
ral elaborate dissertations on Ethnology are in the course of 
preparation by members of that body. 

In conclusion, I would remark, that the present time is 
very favourable to our pursuits. The barriers that have 
hitherto divided nations are everywhere giving way, enlarg- 
ing, by that means, the field of scientific research, and neces- 
sarily demanding additional labourers, in order to reap a full 
and rich harvest. 



VOL. II.